Cholesterol refers to organic compounds, lipids that enter the body with food, as well as synthesized liver. One of the types of natural fatty alcohols, cholesterol is needed to ensure the normal life of a person.
Excess cholesterol in the blood - the primary link in the process of atherosclerotic, or cholesterol, plaques in the blood vessels. Normally, the level of total cholesterol found in the blood as an element of lipoprotein is in the range of 3.6-5.2 mmol / l, and with age due to physiological processes the upper limit of the norm increases depending on the age and the sex of the patient. With more indicators exceeding the upper limit, the risk of atherosclerosis increases, significantly increasing when the index reaches 6.2 mmol / l and more.
Circulating in the blood, cholesterol, with its excess, has the property of sticking together and accumulating in the arteries. Clumps or plaques obstruct the movement of blood, creating obstacles to blood flow and narrowing the lumen of the vessels, which causes oxygen starvation and insufficient blood supply to tissues and organs. With the disintegration of some of the plaques contribute to the formation of a thrombus, which provokes thromboembolism, heart attacks, strokes and can lead to death.
Types of cholesterol
Cholesterol in the blood is contained as a combination of lipid and protein, lipoprotein. Depending on the type of complex compound in cholesterol, high molecular weight lipoproteins ("good" cholesterol) and low molecular weight ("bad") are distinguished in the total, determined by blood analysis. The ratio of good and bad lipoproteins is called the coefficient of atherogenicity, calculating it by the formula: the difference between total and high-molecular cholesterol is divided by the index of low-molecular lipoprotein. The optimal ratio is 3 or less. With a score of 5, there is a high risk or development of atherosclerosis.
Lowering blood cholesterol levels
The practice of lowering cholesterol with medicines showed that when taking one of the most effective substances - statins - the level of total cholesterol decreases, and "good" (by 30%) and "bad" (by 50%), which negatively affects the body. In pharmacological practice, two groups of drugs are used for therapy - fibrates and statins. Fibrates are considered effective in combination with statins.
Drug administration is prescribed for a strictly defined group of patients: with a heart attack, stroke, acute coronary syndrome or a heart surgery in history, and with a hereditary risk of developing diseases associated with high cholesterol.
Drugs for lowering cholesterol
Zokor (Merck Sharp & Dome)
Liptonorm (M.J. Biopharm)
Torvacard (Sanofi Aventis)
Tulip (Lek, Sandoz)
Simvard (Sanofi Aventis)
Crestor (Astra Zeneca)
Simvastol (Gedeon Richter)
Mertenil (Gedeon Richter)
Rosukard (sanofi aventis)
Sinquard (Micro Labs)
Vitamins and minerals for regulation of blood cholesterol level
Niacin or B3
Choline or B4
B6 or pyridoxine
Inositol or B8
To reduce cholesterol in the blood, use also drugs of bile acids, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors and other medicines. At the moment, to reduce cholesterol to a certain level, non-drug therapies are recommended.
Physical activity for the regulation of cholesterol
This factor affects all people with elevated blood cholesterol levels, but especially those who lead a sedentary lifestyle, combining sedentary work with low activity on rest. Hypodinamy is also one of the main reasons for the formation of excessive body weight, which also increases the cholesterol growth probability.Any physical load - walking, running, swimming, sports games, gymnastic exercises - activates the metabolism in the body and helps to eliminate stagnation of bile in the bile ducts, which helps independent withdrawal of excess cholesterol.
Especially recommended for walking and running: these sports, according to the research, best help maintain the circulatory system in a tone and cleanse the blood of excess cholesterol.
Influence of bad habits on the level of cholesterol
There is a pronounced correlation between excess body weight and elevated cholesterol in the blood. Weight normalization helps lower cholesterol. If the achievement of a normal body mass index corresponding to the sex-age characteristics and growth parameters is not feasible by diet and physical activity, specialist consultation is necessary.
Tobacco smoking is not just a bad habit. The constant intake of nicotine, tobacco smoke and carcinogens in the body adversely affects the entire body, including increases the risk of atherosclerosis: a slowing of the metabolism leads to the accumulation of cholesterol and a decrease in the rate of its withdrawal from the circulatory system.
Alcohol is a factor that has a negative impact on health. There is an unconfirmed theory, according to which moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages (no more than 200 ml of dry wines per day) can positively influence the process of lowering cholesterol. Unequivocal opinion on this issue is not developed due to the lack of large-scale studies, but the damage from daily intake of even such alcohol doses exceeds the possible benefits.
Harmful eating habits also affect the level of cholesterol in the blood. The habit of food production and the excessive sugar content in food and beverages are also a negative factor contributing to the formation of cholesterol plaques and the development of atherosclerosis. Exclusion from the diet of products with hydrogenated fats (margar