Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease caused by the absolute or relative lack of an insulin hormone in which hyperglycemia develops.
The disease is chronic and characterized by a violation of not only carbohydrate, but also fat, protein, mineral and water-electrolyte exchanges.
Causes of development of diabetes mellitus
It is now proven that diabetes develops as a result of genetic predisposition. Detection of a number of genetic variations, which are much more common in diabetics, made it possible to establish the hereditary nature of the disease.
Some studies show that type 1 diabetes is inherited with a 3-7% probability from the father and with a 8-10% probability on the part of the mother. If both parents are ill with type 1 diabetes, the risk of transmission to their children rises to 70%.
As for type 2 diabetes, it is inherited with almost 80% probability from both the mother and the father. If both parents are ill with type 2 diabetes, the probability of developing it in children is close to 100%, although the disease is most often realized in adulthood.
Factors affecting the development of diabetes:
With obesity, the body develops tolerance to glucose, which worsens its penetration into muscle cells. So glucose accumulates in the blood, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity refers to those factors that a person can change. Proper nutrition and exercise will change the situation for the better. Some diseases in which there is damage to beta cells of the pancreas. Such diseases include pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diseases of other endocrine glands. One of the provoking factors in this case may be injury.
Some viral infections (for example, rubella, influenza, chickenpox, hepatitis, and others) can become a serious provoking factor, especially for people who are predisposed to diabetes and obese.
Nervous stress is a serious factor for people with hereditary predisposition.
Naturally, the older the person, the higher the likelihood of becoming ill with type 2 diabetes. As for type 1 diabetes, it is usually realized at a teenage and young age.
Acceptance of certain medications (eg, thiazide diuretics and steroid hormones).
Types of diabetes mellitus
There are types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.
The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is the insufficiency of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 develops due to a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin (insulin resistance).
Gestational diabetes mellitus, which occurs during pregnancy, and MODY-diabetes, which represents a group of autosomal dominant diseases, characterized by a worsening of the secretory activity of beta cells of the pancreas, are also distinguished.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are different depending on its type.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus
As a rule, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes grow rapidly. Characteristic manifestations of the disease develop within a few days. In a number of cases, the patient suddenly falls into a diabetic coma. In this case, the patient should be immediately sent to the hospital. Symptoms of diabetes also include increased thirst, odor of acetone in the exhaled air, frequent urination, poor healing of the wounds, skin itching and others.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus
For a long time, type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs without obvious symptoms. This is the so-called prediabetes state, when the patient still has chances to avoid the development of pathology.One of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes is increased fatigue, but few people pay attention to it, all writing off for overwork, weather and other life circumstances. Over time, the patient's eyesight deteriorates, there are memory problems. Because of the high content of glucose in the blood, a person develops a tendency to develop infectious diseases (especially fungal ones). Women often develop a thrush against diabetes mellitus. Patients are noted increased thirst (they consume up to 3-5 liters of fluid per day). In severe cases, ulcers appear due to a trophic disorder in the tissues.
If you find at least one of the above symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and go through all the relevant studies. If a patient is diagnosed with diabetes, it is necessary for the patient to follow all the doctor's recommendations regarding the intake of medicines and dietary restrictions. Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed with the following laboratory tests: fasting glucose; conducting a glucose tolerance test; determination of glycosylated hemoglobin; urine analysis for sugar content; urine analysis for the content of acetone (acetone may be present in urine and in other disorders).
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
The main goal of the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a decrease in the level of glucose in the blood. With type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are necessary.
In diabetes mellitus type II, usually prescribed hypoglycemic drugs and d