Dermatology (Greek derma - skin, logos - teaching, literally "the doctrine of the skin") is a medical discipline, the objects of study of which are the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands), mucous membranes, their structure and functioning, as well as diseases and diagnostics, prevention and treatment. Inside dermatology as a medical science, there are special clinical sections that study individual diseases and their treatment (mycology, trichology). Dermatology is closely connected with venereology, cosmetology, allergology and other medical disciplines.
Skin is part of the whole body structure and is the largest human organ visible to the eye. It, as an indicator, reflects the state of all organs and systems of the body, protects them from mechanical damage and infection. As a rule, skin diseases indicate any violation of the functions of internal organs, unhealthy habits and lifestyle of the patient. Diseases of the skin, in turn, can lead to serious consequences for the body as a whole, if not timely start their treatment.
Features of the structure of the skin, the variety of its functions and the impact of a large number of internal and external factors, cause a variety of skin diseases, or dermatoses.
Factors affecting the skin
The impact of external, or exogenous, factors is very diverse. Physical and chemical agents cause inflammatory skin diseases - dermatitis (burns, scrapes, diaper rash, etc.). Biological factors lead to fungal skin lesions - mycoses (epidermophytia, microsporia), pustular diseases - pyoderma (impetigo, furunculosis, hydradenitis), parasitic infestations (pediculosis, scabies), viral skin lesions (herpes, warts).
An important role in the development of skin diseases is played by internal or endogenous factors: internal diseases, chronic foci of infection, metabolic disorders, hypovitaminosis, and disorders of the nervous system. All these factors can cause various pathological processes in the skin and its appendages, mucous membranes: inflammation, hemorrhages, changes in pigmentation and even the death of individual skin structures (hair follicles, connective tissue fibers, etc.).
At the appearance of the first signs of skin diseases (such as itching, burning, soreness, skin discoloration and skin rash, skin rashes), you should consult a dermatologist. An experienced physician can, at the first careful examination of the skin and careful collection of anamnesis of the patient's life, make a correct diagnosis. To clarify or confirm the diagnosis in dermatology, additional methods of examining the skin, mucous membranes, hair, na