Dermatology (Greek derma - skin, logos - teaching, literally "the doctrine of the skin") is a medical discipline, the objects of study of which are the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands), mucous membranes, their structure and functioning, as well as diseases and diagnostics, prevention and treatment. Inside dermatology as a medical science, there are special clinical sections that study individual diseases and their treatment (mycology, trichology). Dermatology is closely connected with venereology, cosmetology, allergology and other medical disciplines.
Skin is part of the whole body structure and is the largest human organ visible to the eye. It, as an indicator, reflects the state of all organs and systems of the body, protects them from mechanical damage and infection. As a rule, skin diseases indicate any violation of the functions of internal organs, unhealthy habits and lifestyle of the patient. Diseases of the skin, in turn, can lead to serious consequences for the body as a whole, if not timely start their treatment.
Features of the structure of the skin, the variety of its functions and the impact of a large number of internal and external factors, cause a variety of skin diseases, or dermatoses.
Factors affecting the skin
The impact of external, or exogenous, factors is very diverse. Physical and chemical agents cause inflammatory skin diseases - dermatitis (burns, scrapes, diaper rash, etc.). Biological factors lead to fungal skin lesions - mycoses (epidermophytia, microsporia), pustular diseases - pyoderma (impetigo, furunculosis, hydradenitis), parasitic infestations (pediculosis, scabies), viral skin lesions (herpes, warts).
An important role in the development of skin diseases is played by internal or endogenous factors: internal diseases, chronic foci of infection, metabolic disorders, hypovitaminosis, and disorders of the nervous system. All these factors can cause various pathological processes in the skin and its appendages, mucous membranes: inflammation, hemorrhages, changes in pigmentation and even the death of individual skin structures (hair follicles, connective tissue fibers, etc.).
At the appearance of the first signs of skin diseases (such as itching, burning, soreness, skin discoloration and skin rash, skin rashes), you should consult a dermatologist. An experienced physician can, at the first careful examination of the skin and careful collection of anamnesis of the patient's life, make a correct diagnosis. To clarify or confirm the diagnosis in dermatology, additional methods of examining the skin, mucous membranes, hair, nails are widely used: instrumental, laboratory, radiological, special skin tests, etc.
Types of skin diseases
Eczema is another type of dermatitis. It looks like a dry red rash that can appear on any part of the body.
Urticaria is an allergic reaction to anything that you ate (food or medicine) or anything touched. With urticaria there are small pink pimples that are strongly itchy. Most often it spreads throughout the body.
Disease or infection. Viral infections, measles and chicken pox can cause a red rash on the skin all over the body. When chicken pox, a person is covered with small blisters, which must immediately be treated with greenery. Corsa is accompanied by flat red spots that flare up throughout the body, as well as chicken pox. Fungal infections, such as pruritus and ringworm, can also cause skin rashes. Rashes can also cause urinary infections.
Follicular keratosis. It is determined by itching tiny tubercles that give the skin an invoice of sandpaper. Cones can be red flesh-colored, and, more often than not, they appear on the hips and upper arms.
Acne. These are excess fat and clogged sebaceous glands in the skin. These bumps are often red or flesh colored.They can also be white in the case of pus filling. These pimples can occur on the face, shoulders, chest or back.
Skin allergy. Many skin allergies can lead to uneven skin, including contact dermatitis, eczema and hives. These irregularities can appear on any part of the body.
Psoriasis. This is an inflammatory condition of the skin, which results in discoloration of the skin on any part of the body. These lesions can be red, silver, white, or pink. In psoriasis, there are thickened areas of skin that are covered with scales.
Vitiligo. With this disease, the cells stop producing a specific pigment that is responsible for the color of the skin. As a consequence, white spots can appear on any part of the body, but, most often, they are noticed first of all on the face, arms or legs.
Melasma. In this disease, the affected areas of the skin become darker, usually brown, which spreads throughout the face, usually on both sides along a single pattern. Melanoderma usually affects pregnant women or women taking medications that contain hormones, particularly contraceptives or other hormonal drugs.
Lentigo. These are small, flat, dark zones of irregular shape, appearing mainly on the face and arms, chest, shoulders. They appear on the skin due to exposure to sunlight.
Treatment of skin diseases
Treatment of skin diseases requires patient patience and strict adherence to the treatment algorithm. An important role in successful treatment is played by hygienic care for the affected skin, compliance with the diet and the regime of drug therapy.
Medical treatment of skin diseases can be general and local. In dermatological practice, physiotherapeutic and hardware procedures, psychotherapy, sanatorium treatment, phytotherapy, homeopathy are widely used.
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